Raman scattering is sensitive to molecular structure and composition in the tissue. Previous studies have identified spectral signatures from various biomolecules such as protein, lipid, nucleic acid, proteoglycan, and hydroxyapatite. Diagnostic information could be obtained by analyzing disease-associated changes in these biomolecules in the tissue. Development of optical fibers enabled remote Raman measurements and thus potential translation to clinical settings. I will present our recent work in bone health and gastrointestinal inflammation that covers characterization of diseased tissue in the laboratory, and implementation of Raman spectroscopy to clinical studies in vivo for improved diagnosis.